Fine-Tuning & Complexity of Life: Ultimate Proof

"For ever since the world was created, people have seen the earth and sky. Through everything God made, they can clearly see his invisible qualities--his eternal power and divine nature. So they have no excuse for not knowing God." (Romans 1:20)

The Conditions for Life

The more scientists study the universe, the more they discover that conditions in the universe appear to have been extremely fine-tuned (designed) to permit life. Stephen Hawking for example (a man who certainly does not consider himself a Christian) admits:
The universe and the laws of physics seem to have been specifically designed for us. If any of about 40 physical qualities had more than slightly different values, life as we know it could not exist: Either atoms would not be stable, or they wouldn’t combine into molecules, or the stars wouldn’t form the heavier elements, or the universe would collapse before life could develop, and so on. - Stephen Hawking
When he speaks of “40 physical qualities” that appear to have been specifically designed to permit life, he’s talking about...

1. Gravity – Our gravity on earth has a certain amount of strength. It could have been weaker or stronger but is set at the exact level. If it was moved by just one inch, it would create a world-wide catastrophe, we wouldn’t even exist.
2. DNA – No way DNA could have happened by chance. That is about as likely as a computer forming all by itself out of random parts just laying around on a table. How does each one of the billions of cells in the human body know and perform its individual tasks? If the mass of a proton was increased by just 0.2%, hydrogen would be unstable and life would not exist.
3. The Sun - The sun is located at just the right distance to emit the exact amount of heat and energy human life needs. Just 2% closer or further, and life wouldn’t exist as water would freeze or evaporate.
4. The Air – Our air contains a mixture of gases in the exact right proportion. If the amount of Oxygen increased or decreased by just 2%, objects around us could go up in flames and life definitely wouldn't exist.
5. The Earth - If Earth was slightly smaller or larger life wouldn’t exist. The earth travels through space at 66,600 miles an hour, any slower or faster and we wouldn’t be alive.

If any of these conditions were to change even a little, the universe would be hostile to life and incapable of supporting it. And that's just five, numerous conditions have been identified that have to have just the right values (in other words, they need to be “tuned” to just the right degree) for any kind of conceivable physical life to exist in the universe. There are over hundreds of conditions...

1. Strong nuclear force constant
2. Weak nuclear force constant
3. Gravitational force constant
4. Electromagnetic force constant
5. Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
6. Ratio of proton to electron mass
7. Ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
8. Ratio of proton to electron charge
9. Expansion rate of the universe
10. Mass density of the universe
11. Baryon (proton and neutron) density of the universe
12. Space energy or dark energy density of the universe
13. Ratio of space energy density to mass density
14. Entropy level of the universe
15. Velocity of light
16. Age of the universe
17. Uniformity of radiation
18. Homogeneity of the universe
19. Average distance between galaxies
20. Average distance between galaxy clusters
21. Average distance between stars
22. Average size and distribution of galaxy clusters
23. Numbers, sizes, and locations of cosmic voids
24. Electromagnetic fine structure constant
25. Gravitational fine-structure constant
26. Decay rate of protons
27. Ground state energy level for helium-4
28. Carbon-12 to oxygen-16 nuclear energy level ratio
29. Decay rate for beryllium-8
30. Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
31. Initial excess of nucleons over antinucleons
32. Polarity of the water molecule
33. Epoch for hypernova eruptions
34. Number and type of hypernova eruptions
35. Epoch for supernova eruptions
36. Number and types of supernova eruptions
37. Epoch for white dwarf binaries
38. Density of white dwarf binaries
39. Ratio of exotic matter to ordinary matter
40. Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
41. Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
42. Mass values for the active neutrinos
43. Number of different species of active neutrinos
44. Number of active neutrinos in the universe
45. Mass value for the sterile neutrino
46. Number of sterile neutrinos in the universe
47. Decay rates of exotic mass particles
48. Magnitude of the temperature ripples in cosmic background radiation
49. Size of the relativistic dilation factor
50. Magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty
51. Quantity of gas deposited into the deep intergalactic medium by the first supernovae
52. Positive nature of cosmic pressures
53. Positive nature of cosmic energy densities
54. Density of quasars
55. Decay rate of cold dark matter particles
56. Relative abundances of different exotic mass particles
57. Degree to which exotic matter self-interacts
58. Epoch at which the first stars (metal-free pop III stars) begin to form
59. Epoch at which the first stars (metal-free pop III stars cease to form
60. Number density of metal-free pop III stars
61. Average mass of metal-free pop III stars
62. Epoch for the formation of the first galaxies
63. Epoch for the formation of the first quasars
64. Amount, rate, and epoch of decay of embedded defects
65. Ratio of warm exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
66. Ratio of hot exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
67. Level of quantization of the cosmic spacetime fabric
68. Flatness of universe's geometry
69. Average rate of increase in galaxy sizes
70. Change in average rate of increase in galaxy sizes throughout cosmic history
71. Constancy of dark energy factors
72. Epoch for star formation peak
73. Location of exotic matter relative to ordinary matter
74. Strength of primordial cosmic magnetic field
75. Level of primordial magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
76. Level of charge-parity violation
77. Number of galaxies in the observable universe
78. Polarization level of the cosmic background radiation
79. Date for completion of second reionization event of the universe
80. Date of subsidence of gamma-ray burst production
81. Relative density of intermediate mass stars in the early history of the universe
82. Water's temperature of maximum density
83. Water's heat of fusion
84. Water's heat of vaporization
85. Number density of clumpuscules (dense clouds of cold molecular hydrogen gas) in the universe
86. Average mass of clumpuscules in the universe
87. Location of clumpuscules in the universe
88. Dioxygen's kinetic oxidation rate of organic molecules
89. Level of paramagnetic behavior in dioxygen
90. Density of ultra-dwarf galaxies (or supermassive globular clusters) in the middle-aged universe
91. Degree of space-time warping and twisting by general relativistic factors
92. Percentage of the initial mass function of the universe made up of intermediate mass stars
93. Strength of the cosmic primordial magnetic field
If any of these constants was off by even one part in a million, or in some cases, by one part in a million million...there would have been no galaxy, stars, planets or people. - Dr. Francis Collins (former head of the Human Genome Project)

Science has calculated the odds against our universe randomly taking a form suitable for life as:

One in 10,000,000,000124
One in ten billion to the 124th power!
[Ravi Zacharias, The End of Reason, p. 35].

I think you could agree with me that these are such astronomical odds, it is safe to say that the universe did not end up with these finely-tuned conditions apart from an incredibly intelligent and powerful designer.

The Complexity of Life

That was just the chances for the fine-tuning of our universe, we haven't even looked at the chances of complex design by chance!

We see a complex sandcastle. We recognize design. We see a computer: Design. We see an airplane: Design. Well, everywhere we look on our planet we find amazingly complex life forms that are millions of times more complex than sandcastles, computers, or an airplane.

Consider the human eye. The eye is composed of more than two million working parts. The eye is far more complex and advanced than the world’s greatest auto-focus camera that took researchers and developers numerous years and millions of dollars to design and create. Consider the human brain. Scientists tell us that the human brain, weighing in with its 100 billion neurons at about three pounds, is a machine more wonderful than any devised by humans and that it holds enough information to fill some twenty million books. Consider Bacterium. Microorganisms of varying shapes and sizes, have hair on them which they use to move around. Every hair is attached to a tiny complex motor that rotates backward and forward up to 100,000 RPM! This motor is so tiny that 8 million of them would fit on the cross-sectioned stump of an average human hair. The list goes on... We see irreducible complexity of design everywhere!

Professor McIntosh, with many years of engineering research experience, readily admits that all the complex machinery that God has designed in nature is far more complicated than man’s.

You could leave the barren side of a mountain exposed to...
  • Wind
  • Rain
  • The forces of nature
  • Chance
  • And millions of years of time
…and you would never get a Mt. Rushmore, let alone a living, breathing human being. Why? It takes intelligence. 

And yet atheists believe that real-life human beings with...
  • 206 bones
  • 640 muscles
  • and hearts that beat over 100,000 times a day
…are the product of a mindless, random series of accidents and mutations (mutations that have never been shown to add any information to the human genetic code). Well, I don’t have enough faith to believe that.

Francis Crick, one of the two scientists who discovered DNA, having observed the complexity of DNA, estimated that the odds that intelligent life exists on the Earth as the result of non-directed processes to be around:

One in 102,000,000,000
One in ten to the two billionth power!
[Cited in Gary Habermas and Mike Licona, The Case for the Resurrection, 2004, p. 179]

Now of course you’re free to believe life came about by non-directed natural causes. But I certainly wouldn’t bet against God's existence with such overwhelming odds.